Saturday, September 21, 2019

Marketing Segmentation Targeting And Positioning Marketing Essay

Marketing Segmentation Targeting And Positioning Marketing Essay Introduction In marketing segmentation, targeting and positioning of the product is necessary, it is also known as STP process. Segmentation helps the manager to identify which area they have to focus on according to geography, demographics, social or other factors. After segmentation targeting is done which requires the needs of target customers to be fulfilled. After segmentation and targeting the positioning comes which refers to the way the consumer have the image of the product. Segmentation, targeting and positioning go hand in hand for an organisation to achieve the desirables. Market segmentation is a process of grouping people together with similar needs or smaller segments who show similar buying pattern. Segmentation is done either for differentiating a product or to target a specific group of people to earn profit. It is a form of critical evaluation rather than a prescribed system or process. According to Kotler 2010 the requirements of effective segmentation must be: Measurable It depends upon the buying capacity of the consumer. Accessible For effective segmentation the product should be easily accessible and the needs of the consumer are fulfilled. Substantial There should be enough number of people to buy the product. Differentiable This market segment has made different segments and they act accordingly according to the market need. Actionable This depends on how the product attracts and serves the segments. When the focus is on segmented markets a company is allowed to use its resources more effectively and efficiently thereby increasing the chances of its success in the market. According to Kotler 2010 for the effective segmentation of Apple iPhone the buying capacity of the consumer is a little low due to laws of economics. An Apple iphone costs around  £299 which is a lot of money and people think a lot before buying it. The Apple iPhone is widely accessible to USA, UK and many European countries but Apple does not launch its iPhone in countries where they feel people wont be able to pay the price. According to (West Mace, 2007) Apple differentiates itself from its competitors through innovation. The iPhone offers unique features which cannot be imitated and offers the latest feature which attracts customers to buy the product. Blackberry on the other hand like iPhone has a low buying power due to the fact that it is regarded as a business phone but it has its own market in which it excels. Blackberry sells everywhere and in the business world there are enough people to buy the product. Blackberry is regarded as a business phone which differentiates it; apart from being a business phone Blackberry also differentiates itself by its unique Blackberry messenger service in which a person can send and receive instant text messages anywhere and in any part of the world without being charged. The Blackberry messenger service differentiates this phone from its competitors. Blackberry has attracted a lot of business personnel as the phone serves the purpose of being connected with the business anytime. Nokia is different from both Blackberry and the Apple iPhone it has high buying power because it has a phone for everyone may be rich or poor. Nokia has entered the markets of both Blackberry and Apple iPhone and is doing quite well. The Blackberry is competing with Nokia E series which is the business edition of Nokia and for the Apple iPhone it is the N series. Apart from these series there are other series as well which focuses on the different segments of the society. Nokia has its products in every segment and which is at a lower price than its competitors which help Nokia to differentiate itself. Nokia sells its products in every part of the world unlike the iPhone and Blackberry and at a lower price. This low price is achieved because of economies of scale, since it serves a large number of the population. Due to Nokia phones being cheap, reliable and long lasting than its competitors it attracts a lot of customer. Nokia offers similar features as offered by its counterparts . Nokia products are not always cheap it has a product range called the Vertu which offers the worlds most exclusives phones. According to (Dibb et. al. 2006) the advantages of segmentation of a market can be done by:- Understanding the customer This requires a careful study and research to understand the customer needs and wants. Therefore an organisation can focus on the key factors and put more emphasis on understanding the customer thereby improving brand loyalty. Understand the competitor This requires a study of the market to know who the main competition for an organisation is and which segment is been targeted. So that the organisation pays more emphasis on the product. Effective resource allocation After understanding the customer and the competitors an organisation is in a better position to utilize the company resources effectively. Strategic Marketing Planning Dividing the market into segments helps the marketers to develop special plans to gain the attention of the competitors. Market segmentation According to Dibb et. al. 2006 market can be segmented according to Demographic Variables Age Occupation Gender Family Size Race Family life cycle Ethnicity Religion Income Social Class Education Geographic Variables Population City Size Region Market Density Urban, Suburban, Climate rural Psychographic Variables Personality attributes Motives Lifestyles Behaviouristic Variables Volume usage End use Benefit expectations Brand loyalty Price sensitivity (Adapted from Dibb et. al. 2006 pp 228) Demographic Variables It is the characteristics of the population such as age, gender, race which help in knowing the needs and buying behaviour and can be recorded. These types of variables can be measured easily. It helps an organization to know what type of population they are going to target. According to Kotler 2010 by segmenting according to the age helps the companies to develop the product according to the needs and wants of that age group. Segmentation according to gender or income divides the market accordingly and it helps to understand what type of products a company has to deliver in order to achieve Geographic Variables The need of customers changes according to the population, region, and climate. The geographic variables play a very important role in the market segmentation because the needs of customer may be different for different customers. An organization can decide in which countries they would like to operate in or what kind of population they are going to target. Psychographic Variables The personality characteristics, motives and lifestyles are sometime used to segment the market. It can be used alone or mixed with any other type of market segment. It is useful when the competition is intense. The marketers may also segment according to the social classes of different people; this helps an organization to know who their customers is and what kind of products they would like to have. Behaviouristic Variables The market can also be segmented according to the consumer behaviour towards the product. It may depend upon brand loyalty or on the price of the product. According to Kotler 2010 a market can be segmented according to loyalty also. If the product has made an impact on the customer then the company has achieved what was required. Market segmentation of Apple iPhone The Apple iPhone is targeted for the people lying in the age group of 18 to 40 year olds because they are the ones who are interested in buying the technology. Mainly males rather than females are targeted for the iPhone because of the applications, games and features such as wireless internet which are generally used more by the male population as compared to the latter. The customers buying the Apple iPhone are usually students who belong to higher class as well as higher middle class as the phone is quite expensive they even involve early adopters and the early majority. The iPhone is launched and sold first mainly across USA, UK and some parts of Europe because they have the infrastructure ready for it and also because the competition in these countries is quiet intense. Apple iPhone has a strong brand image in the mind of the customer as Apple says its not a phone its an experience. The after sales service provided by Apple is very good which helps in creating brand loyalty amon g the customer. The price positioning strategy of the Apple iPhone 4 is premium strategy which means that the iPhone 4 is of very high quality and to get that quality the consumers have to pay a higher price. Market segmentation of Blackberry The blackberry is regarded as a business phone it is not targeted towards a particular age group but it is targeted towards the business segment consisting of business professionals. There is no social class for the blackberry because it targets the whole business segment. The phone offers business features like access to e mail wireless internet and many other but the most remarkable feature it has is the blackberry messenger by which a person can send and receive text anywhere, anytime in the world free of charge. This is the most unique feature of the blackberry phone it gets connected to any blackberry phone in the world through a pin number which is different for every blackberry phone. Once the connection is set a business personnel can send and receive texts which is very helpful a person can receive important messages delivered to him on the go. Market segmentation of Nokia Nokia on the other hand has gained entry into all the segments it has something for everyone. Nokia has customers of all age group demographically it targets younger age groups who want the latest features at an affordable price. There is no social class involved for Nokia as it has a phone for every social class. The people buying Nokia phones can be student, business professionals.Nokia through high production has been able to reduce the cost of it phones which helps it to capture a large market. Nokia has a product for every customer in every bracket. The E- Series of Nokia is designed for the business class, the N series is for the teenagers and has normal phones for other people as well. Nokia has developed a phone for the highly social class known as the Vertu which is an exclusive for the higher class. Nokia has diversified with the range of products it has in the market. Nokia has different models and they fall in different price brackets according to the features they provi de. Nokia has made its brand image as a reliable and value for money kind of phones. CONCLUSION According to the segmentation techniques utilised by Apple iPhone, Blackberry and Nokia it is evident that Apple iPhone segments itself from Blackberry and Nokia by innovation, Blackberry segments itself from others with its Blackberry messenger service and Nokia segments itself from others through reliable and value for money phones. POSITIONING OF iPhone 4 According to Kotler 2010 positioning can be defined as the perspective of a consumer mind on what he thinks about the brand. According to Dibb et. al. 2007 it is the image that a consumer perceives about the product. The position of Apple iPhone 4 in peoples mind is quite high it is a premium product having very high involvement of research and development and is targeted towards people who are rich, having a good lifestyle. It is a premium product having a high price and having exclusive features which other mobile phone manufacturers dont have. There is a price for this exclusivity because the way Apple has made an image of the iPhone 4 is remarkable the punch line for iPhone 4 is This changes everything.Again. which means that the iPhone 4 has changed the way we used to look at mobile phones it is something different than traditional or it can be defined as an innovation or it is an experience rather than a phone. Due to the exclusivity and the features involved Apple can set a pr emium price for the iPhone 4 as the features and the experience of iPhone 4 cannot be imitated by any other mobile manufacturer. PRODUCT OFFERING The iPhone 4 provides a wide range of stunning features the iOS 4 is the heart of the phone, it is the worlds most powerful mobile operating software which distinguishes it from other mobile phones. The technology and the features used in the operating system will keep the iPhone 4 at least 4 years ahead of its competitors. The operating system also helps the phone to do a lot of things at once without even slowing down the performance of the phone. The 3.5 inch widescreen multi touch display of the iPhone 4 has a resolution of 960 X 640 pixels which is very high and it helps in giving a sharp pictures. The 5 megapixel camera along with LED flashlight helps in taking pictures in low light. The iPhone 4 is the world thinnest smartphone ever built and the glass used on the screen is made up of aluminium silicate which helps it to be durable and scratch resistant and is recyclable too. Apart from the hardware Apple has a collection of over 3,00,000 applications in the App Store which he lps in improving the performance of the iPhone as well as it updates the phone automatically. It has a built in flash drive of 32 GB or 16 GB and the built in battery provides a longer backup for calls and internet. POSITIONING MAPS According to Kotler 2010 the position maps are used by marketers to know the perception of the brand in consumer minds. The positioning of iPhone 4 lies in the luxury segment with high performance along with a high price than its competitors. BRAND EQUITY According to Dibb et. al. 2007 brand equity can be defined as the value of brand which goes above the functional benefits of the product. (Adapted from Dibb et. al. 2007, pp 319) Brand equity plays an important role in the positioning of the product in the market it is the value of the brand which the consumer keeps in mind. Brand Name Awarness The brand name awareness helps the consumer to get familiar with the brand which helps in the selection of the brand. In the case of iPhone 4 the brand is known to everyone and the consumers are switching to iPhone 4 because it is reliable and is of high quality as compared with other brands. Brand Loyalty Brand loyalty is an important aspect of the brand equity because it reduces the competition with other mobile phone brands. It helps in retaining the existing customers and provides a potential for new customers to be loyal. Apple with the launch of iPhone 4 has been loyal to its customers by delivering the most innovative features and exclusivity that earlier version of iPhone had. this helped Apple in retaining their customers and inviting new customers. Perceived Brand Quality Customers see quality with the brand. Apple is a brand and has high level of quality so the consumer has in mind that whatever product Apple will make will be of high quality and standards that is why Apple is able to sell the iPhone 4 at a premium price allowing it to reduce competition. Brand Association Apple has created a lifestyle for itself; the statement associated with iPhone 4 is This changes everything. Again. This means that Apple has introduced the iPhone 4 as a unique product which has the best features and value amongst its competitors. BRAND ELEMENTS Brand elements can be defined as the different criterias by which a product is defined. Brands elements should be Memorable Apple iPhone 4 has a strong brand image and is easily recognized by the consumer. Apple has been ranked among the top 10 brands of 2010 in the world it holds third position therefore there is a very strong image of the company in the minds of the consumers and the consumers is able to identify the brand. Meaningful After the launch of the Apple iPhone 4 the consumers have started switching their phones to the iPhone 4. This shows that the product that is iPhone 4 has been up to the mark in terms of creating the brand image. Likability The Apple iPhone 4 with its unique features and its futuristic looks has become a favourite for many consumers. Transferability Apple iPhone 4 has been successful in maintaining as well as improving the brand image that previous version of iPhone had, so the transfer between the iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 has been handled quite well by the company. Adaptability The iPhone 4 with its applications has adapted itself in the market and the engineering involved in every part of the phone helps it to be adaptable. Protectability The iPhone 4 is an exclusive phone aimed at the higher social class, it protects itself from its competitors by innovations. The Apple iPhone 4 is not easily accessible to everyone as the price is quiet high which helps in giving exclusivity to the customers therefore apple is able to protect its brand image. CONCLUSION Brand equity plays a vital role in the positioning of the product and the brand elements support the brand to which the product is associated to. Apple sells the iPhone 4 at a premium price because it is the value that is associated with the product has been created using brand equity. Apple has shown a high involvement of research and development for the iPhone 4 and the features it offers are remarkable. References Kotler, P Armstrong, G (2010) Principles of Marketing 13th edition, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall Dibb, S., et.al. (2006), Marketing : Concepts and Strategies, Boston, MA ; Abingdon : Houghton Mifflin West, J., Mace, M. (2007). Entering a mature industry through innovation:Apples iPhone strategy. Druid summer cofrence.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Exploring the depth of Buddhism : four noble truths, Karma, Nirvana

Exploring the depth of Buddhism : four noble truths, Karma, Nirvana The Buddhism is the fourth-largest religion in the world, being a very influential religion worldwide. The Buddhism was first originated in India, therefore, being classified as an Indian religion. Although Buddhism originated in India, it rapidly spread around Asia, now being one of the most dominating and influential religion in Asia. The Buddhism is immensely associated with the state of being awakened about the human nature. This process is obtained and trained mostly through meditation, which is a distinct feature about Buddhism compared to other religions. The Buddhism is rather a self-mentoring and self-recognizing about the nature of human lives and the surroundings. The Buddhism encompasses the teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, which means the awakened one. In addition, the Buddha was recognized by his followers as an awakened teacher who was fully aware of, what is known as the Buddhists philosophy or beliefs, a cycle of suffering and rebirth. In other words, the Buddhism greatly elaborates on the belief about nothingness, death and afterlife. There are various branches in Buddhism but there are two main branches; Theravada, meaning the school of elders, and Mahayana, meaning the great vehicle. Moreover, there are four very important features about Buddhism; the four noble truth, karma, nirvana and Mahayana. The purpose of this paper is to explore the Buddhism in depth, about its origins and various beliefs. In particular, it will be based on the four noble truths, karma, nirvana and Mahayana, the major branches in Buddhism. The most fundamental thoughts and beliefs in Buddhism are greatly based on the four noble truths. Especially in the Mahayana Buddhism, the fourth truths are the essential concepts to the path. The four noble truths are the formulation of his understanding of the nature of suffering. Since his beliefs and teachings were mostly about suffering and nirvana, it was the most advanced and fundamental principle in Buddhism. The significance of his belief is that he did not view negatively about suffering but acknowledged it. The followings are the four noble truths. 1. Life means suffering 2. The origin of suffering is attachment 3. The cessation of suffering is attainable 4. The path to the cessation of suffering. As the Buddha puts an emphasis on the understanding of suffering, it is very important to recognize the importance of these noble truths. The first truth is basically about the human nature being painful for their entire lifetime. The beginning of life, birth, is the start of suffering as the pregnancy is extremely painful. As we live along, we age and get older, which is also suffering. Moreover, humans are very vulnerable to all kinds of diseases and illness, which is also suffering. However, on top of all these sufferings, the most painful and long-lasting suffer is probably death. The death of the parents, friends, lovers and even children lead people to great pain for a long time. Therefore, the first noble truth that the life is suffering describes well about the human nature. The second truth suggests that the suffering is caused by attachment. In Buddhist point of attachment is mostly greed, egotism and unnecessary desire. According to this truth, the desire for attachment would only result in misery and suffer. Moreover, this truth also gives the idea that everything is impermanent, meaning that in any realm of human nature they cannot possess eternal happiness. Everything changes, death exists and desire will only lead to misery and suffer. The third truth is related to the second truth. Since the suffering is caused by attachment, the cure for suffering is to vanish the attachments. This is simply to abolish the cause of suffering, abolishing the source of pain. In other words, by being free from all worries, troubles and greediness, the cessation of suffering can be attained. This state of mind is called nirvana, which will be dealt in more detail later on this essay. The nirvana will only be comprehensible to those who have attained it. The fourth truth is the extended thought about third truth, which talks about the path to end the suffering, a gradual path of self-improvement. There are two extremes, indulgence and asceticism, which the two ends lead to the end of a cycle, rebirth. Therefore, the main point of this truth is to avoid the extremes in favor of a life of moderation, nonviolence and compassion. Therefore, Buddhism is the middle way. Another important feature about Buddhism is karma, any kind of intentional action whether mental, verbal, or physical. The karma is every volitional action of individuals, whether those are good or bad. The exception made in their case is because they are delivered from both good and evil; they have eradicated ignorance and craving, the roots of Karma. Buddha says All living beings have actions as their own, their inheritance, their congenital cause, their kinsman, their refuge. It is Karma that differentiates beings into low and high states (deBary, p417). This is the main idea of karma, that the will makes the difference between good and bad. In each life, a soul is punished or rewarded based on its past actions, or karma, from the current life as well as earlier lives. Karma isnt due to gods judgment over a persons behavior. The way Buddhist accepts is somewhat different from the way the ordinary people perceive. The Buddhists understand good and evil in terms of how selfless and pure the person is, rather than simply caring for other people or being nice. Buddhists believe that the greatest achievement is selflessness(deBary, p493), showing how Buddhists perceive goodness. In addition, since karma is not a god or a supernatural force, it can be controlled by strong will. This state of mind, karma, can be cured by meditation, as the greateset mediation is a mind that lets go(deBary, p495). Another important fact is that Karma is not only believed in Buddhism, but also in Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and many other religious groups. Because Karma is categorized as being the chain of cause and effect, Buddhists perceive karma as motives behind an action. Therefore, in order to make a difference between good and bad action, you will still need to have a pure intention, which can only be obtained in the empty state. In Buddhism, there is a state that the Buddhists desire to acquire, perhaps their ultimate goal in their lives. When karma is a willful action of individuals, nirvana is the state that Buddhists desire to acquire. Nirvana is the state of being free from all the suffering and sadness. It is a central concept in Buddhism, a spiritual state of having no sorrow and anger. Buddha says that Nirvana is the highest happiness(deBary, p494) , extinguishing ignorance, hatred and suffering. The Buddha also referred Nirvana as the state of deathlessness having an increasing control over the generation of karma. Since Buddha had overcome all these complexes and sufferings through meditation and achieved nirvana, his mental health was perfect. Also, that he was very much aware of appreciating the pureness, in which people are initially born with and try to obtain. Therefore, the Buddhists refer to this state as enlightenment. In order to achieve this peace, individuals practice and meditate endlessly to empty their minds as much as possible. Also, this highest spiritual state is derived from the cessation of the desires and greed. Once the state of Nirvana is achieved, you can fully escape the cycle of karma and achieve parinirvana, nirvana in the afterlife. Parinirvana is the final nirvana that you eventually obtain endless peace in your life for the rest of your cycle of life. The Buddhism relates lots of their religious beliefs to afterlife. For example, they believe that when you commit lots of malevolent actions that you will have to pay off for those actions, perhaps in afterlife. Also, when you are constantly experiencing misfortune, Buddhists will say that you are paying off what you have committed in the past life. Moreover, another famous belief that Buddhists have is that in order to have a relationship with a person, you need have an extremely strong bond with that person from the past life. Meaning that past life and after life is somehow related, in terms of relationships. The Mahayana is one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism, which was believed to be first founded in India. It is generally believed in the East Asia, including Korea, Mongolia, China and Japan. The Mahayana is majorly taught in Buddhists schools. People who strongly believe in Mahayana usually think that the state of nirvana can be achieved in a single lifetime, and it can be accomplished even by a layperson. The Mahayanists puts an emphasis on the individual enlightenment. In a different point view, they strive to liberate from the cycle of birth and death, the ultimate source of suffering. Once Buddhists are set free from all the pain, suffering and troubles, they eventually reach the bliss of Nirvana. Another important feature about Mahayana is that they believe in universalism, which is the belief that everyone can become a Buddha (deBary, p502). This is an abstract belief but the theory is that at some point, you will become a Buddha as you obtain more and more selflessness. Moreover, the Mahayanists also believe that compassion to help sentient beings reach enlightenment: become a bodhisattva, both human and seemingly godlike, yourself. We can see that the Mahayanists generally believed in ordinary people, perhaps Buddhists, could eventually reach a state of mind that can become Buddha, which can be governed by compassion and individual enlightenment. Once you recognize the sentient beings, you will be drawn closer to the Nirvana, the ideal and ultimate peace in Buddhism. Therefore, the Mahayanists also believe in reaching a state where they could extinguish their own individual existence in Nirvana. In conclusion, we have explored the Buddhism, its various supporting beliefs and the origin of those branches of Buddhism. It seemed that Buddhists majorly desire to achieve the peaceful and empty state of mind, regardless of what branch they strongly believed. For example, there were extremely keen to acquire the Nirvana, the ultimate peace in life, no longer being entangled in suffering and pain. Most of the suffering comes from the cycle of death and attachment. However, the cessation of those attachments is the way to overcome the pain and achieve nirvana. This controlling of mind is also associated with Karma, which is the willful action. Therefore, the Karma differentiates the state of mind, which will cause the individuals life to branch in different directions. The Mahayana is a powerful branch in Buddhism, which emphasizes individual enlightenment. In a nut shell, the ultimate motto of Buddhism is to achieve the state of nothingness, understanding the cycle of suffering, the karmic cycle and the cycle of rebirth and death. By exploring the Buddhism, I figured that Buddhism is more associated with individuals attainment, rather than simply worshiping the supernatural beings or gods.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Appease for more Lands and the Effects Essay -- English history, ba

The battle of Hastings of 1066 intertwined English history with that of Normandy and consequently with France. Once William of Normandy conquered England, the nature of medieval English state transformed drastically. In 1086, all land in England became a fief held by the â€Å"crown in return for service.† Norman presence under King William â€Å"diminished local particularism† by scattering and distributing land. Furthermore, as Hollister and Stacey indicate, Norman Conquest brought with it, its own form of feudalism distinct from its French counterpart— â€Å"more orderly and thoroughgoing†.† As a result, a tightening of the military occurred; fortresses could no longer be built without royal authority to prevent insurrections. In addition, other Norman elements such as the French language and culture manifested among the English elites, but in no way made their identity. William’s conquest did not eliminate Anglo-Saxon culture that preda ted him; instead, he adopted the Anglo-Saxon disposition and Carolingian forms of rulership, which continued under other Norman rulers of England. By the Norman Conquest, England had already become one of the most integrated and consolidated states in Europe with a highly structured system of royal administration, well-established laws, and a centralized economic system (with effective forms of taxation). At best, the Norman Conquest improved already existing political, economic and social structures. The battle of Hastings led to the switch in English monarchy and linked English fate to France for centuries to come both militarily and economically but it was not the making of England. Norman rulers from 1066 onward focused more on territorial expansion than developing the English identity as a showcase o... ...,† as transformations that occurred in England, legal, economic and ecclesiastical all emerged independent of France, mostly from internal pressure than outside push. As Hollister and Stacey illustrate, the distraction of England by its interaction with Franc is evident in the fact that â€Å"almost every English king since the Norman Conquest had campaigned against the French at one time or another.† While conquest and military expansion by the twelveth and thirteen century became a part of the English need to expand its empire it was not a necessary attribute to their â€Å"Englishness.† Bibliography: Halsall, Paul. â€Å"The Trial of Joan of Arc, 1431." New York: Fordham University, 1998. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1431joantrial.asp Hollister, C. Warren, Robert C. Stacy, and Robin Chapman Stacy. The making of England to 1399, 8th ed. Houghton Mifflin, 2001.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

A Comparison of the Portrayal of Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird :: English Literature

A Comparison of the portrayal of Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird and Miss Havisham in great expectations. In 'To Kill a Mockingbird' the author uses a retrospective narration, this means that we can see events through the eyes of a child, yet also has the intelligence of an adult to explain the events thouroghly. Because narrator has personal experience of what happened we have a closer insight into the details. This method of reflection means that we can understand other characters feelings more easily, and the settings and ways of Maycomb. 'Great Expectations' is similar to ' To Kill a Mockingbird' it also has shows the events of a person from childhood to becoming an adult. The story follows Pip, who is the main character in this novel; it shows him as a child, being introduced to Miss Havisham, then later on as a main person in Miss Havisham's life. Pip and Scout help us to understand the feelings of other characters.. 'To Kill a Mockingbird' is set in the 1930s, in a town called Maycomb. It is a small town with a close-knit community, it has a deserted feel to it, however it is very tense, with a lot of families and rumours and gossip. Maycomb is also a claustrophobic place to be, with the identical houses, the grass on the sidewalks (unkempt), and also it is very dusty, hot and humid. The neighbours are known to be very suspicious and judgemental. It is a reserved community and it can get very dull. In 'Great Expectations', in the chapters that we have read, rather then it being concentrated on a town, it is mostly concentrated on Miss Havisham's House. Satis House, which stand for very big and satisfactory. Within this house everything is kept the way it was at the time of the wedding. With cobwebs, and dust on all the furniture. Even the surrounding of the satis house was dying; "there was a large brewery, no brewing was going on in it", this shows that everything around miss Havisham was a symbol of what was within her. It shows that she is dead within. Both Boo Radley and Miss Havisham live in seclusion, this means they prefer to be cut off from the outside world, a quote that show this is' "some of the windows had been walled up" However they both have someone to help them with life, Boo Radley has his brother Nathan, and Miss Havisham has her adopted daughter Estella. Miss Havisham acts this way because of what happened to her earlier in her life; she was left at the altar.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Moth Man

Sarah Lyon October 22, 2008 Informative speech Comm. 103 T/R 200-315 The Moth man Lives Topic: The Moth man of Point pleasant West Virginia General Purpose: To provide information on the actual Mothman occurrences In point pleasant West Virginia. Specific purpose: To inform my class to the truth behind the movie the moth man prophecies and let them hear the err tale of the hauntings that are so close to our campus. I. Thesis: The Mothman proposes is a legend about a human side bird like creature that has been linked to many deaths over the years in point pleasant west Virginia.Organizational pattern Attention grabber: Im the type of person that loves Urban legends and when from the moment that I got to Marshall’s campus I wanted to find one. And then the hunt began, I searched and I found The Moth man. Most of you are problem familiar with him from the movie the mothman prophecies. However the story doesn’t end when the final credits started to roll. II. Background: In the early 1900's, an area outside Point Pleasant was designated the McClintic Wildlife Preserve. It was, among other things, a bird sanctuary.As part of the World War II war effort, part of the preserve was ripped up and converted to a munitions dump where about 100 cement and steel â€Å"igloos† were built to house wartime explosives. These were later sold off to a variety of gunpowder, chemical and even bio-chemical companies. This area soon became known to the locals simply as the T. N. T. , and later became a popular hangout where young people would â€Å"park† and have parties. This is the area where many of the Mothman sightings occurred. III.Relevance: All of the sighting of The Mothman have been linked significantly to deaths around point plesant including the collapse of the silver bridge that killed 46. IV. Establish credibility: Now I’d like to tell you that The Mothman is just a figment of our imagination and that we live in the safe state of West Vi rginia where nothing bad ever happens, but I’d be lying to you. He has been linked to hundreds of deaths across our great state and there have been similar stories all over the world of a bird like mythical creature that brings about death. V.Thesis/preview: The Moth man prophecies are not just a subject tile for a popular thriller movie but a real life urban legend that exists here in west Virginia. He has been linked to hundreds of deaths and the great silver bridge collapsing. Transition: Even though it is hard to believe that a bird like man is responsible for killings around the entire state it is common knowledge that animals affected by strong chemicals can have strange mutations. Body I. How are the deaths linked to The Moth man? A. Prior to every death, reports of seeing a birdlike man with red eyes were sighted. . â€Å"In the summer of 1966, sightings began to take place around the Ohio River. One woman reported seeing something looking like a giant butterfly, abo ut six feet long. On another evening a group of gravediggers saw what they described as a â€Å"brown human being† fly out of the trees. Later that November a man in Salem, West Virginia saw two red objects hovering over a field. His German Sheppard took off after the objects and was never seen again. †(http://www. otherplane. com/am/ammothman. htm). 2. â€Å"It was shaped like a man, but bigger. Maybe six and a half or seven feet tall.And it had big wings folded against its back† Roger Scar berry told reporters. â€Å"But it was those eyes that got us. It had two big eyes like automobile reflectors,† added Linda Scar berry. â€Å"They were hypnotic. For a minute, we could only stare at it. I couldn’t take my eyes off it. † (http://www. ufocasebook. com/themothman. html) B. The movie, The Moth man Prophecies is a semi-fictional account of a reporter who â€Å"solved† the story of the moth man. 1. In the film the reporter finds himself entranced by the legend when his wife has mysteriously died suddenly after a car accident. 2.He gets in his car after her death and arrives by accident in Point Pleasant west Virginia. 3. He becomes friends with the locals and starts to invest the eerie phenomenon that is engulfing their quiet American town. Transition: The movie was good at explaining what happened as far as the deaths due to the mothman but did not go into great details about how The Moth man was actually created. II. The story A. during WWII an area of Point Pleasant was inhabited by â€Å"igloos† that were used to manufactory Trinitrotoluene (TNT). The â€Å"igloos† housed the TNT until it was needed to be sent for war efforts B.The Igloos were sealed and had been hidden, the EPA said that there was no way they could have leaked out any of the chemical, however many choose to believe otherwise. C. The area is now known to locals as the TNT area. It is a recreational area for locals as well as a pla ce where teenagers tend to hang out and party. Conclusion I. Restatement of thesis: Despite common held beliefs that the moth man is just a creature that haunted the town of point pleasant wv, he is actually a bird preserve inhabitant that was destroyed by the efforts of WWII.He will still haunt the town of point pleasant forever because he is linked to over one hundred deaths but as we can see, we have no concrete evidence to show this.Bibilography: â€Å"OTHERPLANE: Ancient myth paranormal mothman. † OTHERPLANE. Otherplane. com. 22 Oct. 2008 ;lt;http:/http://www. otherplane. com/am/ammothman. htm;gt;. â€Å"The mothman souce: chapter 1. † The mothman legend. Ufobooks. 22 Oct. 2008 ;lt;http:/http://www. ufocasebook. com/themothman. html;gt;.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Carl Jung’s Theory Essay

Carl Jung tackled personality and ‘psychological types’ (also referred to as Jung’s psychological types) from a perspective of clinical psychoanalysis. He was one of only a handful of psychologists in his era to maintain that development is never unchanging, but in fact actually grows through childhood, adolescence, mid-life and into old age. He concentrated on establishing and developing a relationship between conscious and unconscious processes. Jung believed that there was a interchange between the conscious and unconscious and without it the unconscious processes could weaken and possibly endanger the personality and this is seen in one of his central concepts of individuation. He believed that individuation is a continuous process of personal development that involves founding a connection between the ego and the self and that it could be brought to its highest realisation if worked with and the unconscious was confronted. Jung, (as did Freud) , referred to the ego when explaining the more conscious aspect of personality. However he (unlike Freud) thought the unconscious side of the personality was equal in status, and complimentary to that of  the conscious. He referred to the integrated personality as Self; the centre of the total psyche, incorporating both the conscious and the unconscious. The Self includes all of a person’s qualities and potentials whether or not they become apparent at a particular stage of life. Therefore the goal of therapy is to guide the client to become a whole a human being as personal circumstances will allow. It was from Jung’s confrontation with the unconscious, in himself and his patients, that he gradually elaborated his psychology. His book Psychological Types (1921) worked as the compass by which he tried to understand how he differed from both Freud and Adler, but more importantly, could begin to chart the internal world of people. He considered spirituality a central part of the human journey (indeed there is a whole literature relating Jungian psychology and spirituality, primarily from a Christian perspective) and had a deep appreciation of creative life. Jung’s description of personality states that in order to identify a psychological type it is necessary to discover whether a person is oriented primarily toward his inner world Introversion or toward external reality Extroversion. These were known as the fundamental attitude of the individual to emphasise its importance: Introverts Are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts, feelings, fantasies, dreams, and so on. Extroverts These people prefer the external world of things and people and activities. In todays world these words have become confused with ideas like shyness and sociability, partially because introverts tend to be shy and extroverts tend to be sociable. But Jung intended for them to refer more to whether you (â€Å"ego†) more often faced toward the persona and outer reality, or toward the collective unconscious and its archetypes. In that sense, the introvert is  somewhat more mature than the extrovert. Our culture, of course, values the extrovert much more. Jung warned that we all tend to value our own type most, This reality is still applicable to therapists today as it is important not to allow personal feelings to take place when working with clients. Both introvert and extravert overrate their strengths and each of them tends to undervalue the other. To the extravert, the introvert seems egotistical and dull, and to the introvert, the extravert appears superficial and insincere. Jung believed that a person remained an extravert or introvert without change for the whole of his life, and that heredity determines whether the libido is directed inward or outward. Whether a person is an introvert or extrovert they need to deal with both their inner and outer world. And each has their preferred way of dealing with it, ways which they are comfortable with and good at. This hypothesised stability of the introversion-extroversion trait is consistent with empircal research using Non-Jungian measures of introversion and extraversion. We now find the introvert-extravert dimension in several theories, notably Hans Eysenck’s. :- Eysenck (1916 – 1997) In Eysenck’s view people are biosocial animals and that psychology stands at the crossroads of biological sciences and social sciences. He states that psychology must become more of a true science with methodology in all that the therapist does in order to permit personality theorists to make predictions that can be tested and therefore make possible the development of the causal theory of personality, which he believes will inevitably help the therapist with clients presenting problems. Eysenck believed that from a scientific angle, Jung’s contribution to the study of personality types had been largely negative as he permitted mystical notions to override empirical data and sought to go beyond descriptive analysis to the causal analysis of personality. Eysenck went on  to review the theories and came to the conclusion that most people fall somewhere between the middle of the two extremes of those whose emotions are liable and easily aroused and those who are stable and less easily aroused. He suggested that the basic dimensions of personality may be summarised as shown in.(Figure 2) below (Figure 2) Further work by Eysenck tied personality differences to visceral brain activity and he showed that because introverts have sensitive nervous systems they are more easily conditioned and that also makes them more vulnerable to anxiety based neuroses if the visceral brain activity is high, whereas the extravert has a less sensitive and more inhibited cortical process and therefore are slow to develop conditioned response. Because socialized behavior depends on a well conditioned response in childhood extraverts were more likely to develop psychopathic disorders if their visceral brain activity is high. This theory is hypthetical and Eysenck realized that his hypothesis â€Å"must stand and fall by empirical confirmation† (1965) Despite his scientific data Eysenck, like Jung, advocated that human behaviour has both biological and social causes but that there is a strong genetic component. Perhaps therapists could look at the behaviour and traits of a client’s close family when working with them in order to better understand the â€Å"nature/nurture debate† Jung associated the conscious part of the psyche (ego) to an island that rises out of the sea. We notice only the part above the water, even though there is a greater land mass below the water – much like an iceberg, the unconscious lies below. The personal unconscious is a reservoir of experience unique to each individual consisting of perceptions, thoughts, feelings and memories that have been put to one side or repressed but not always covered by sea and therefore can be reclaimed. Whereas the personal unconscious is unique to every individual, the collective unconscious is shared or â€Å"transpersonal† and consists of certain potentialities that we all  share because of our human nature, because we all live in groups and in some form of society or family life. He believed that the collective unconscious did not develop individually but was inherited and consisted of pre- existent forms, the archetypes. An archetype is a universal thought form or predisposition to respond to the world in certain ways and is crucial to Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious because it emphasises potentialities in which we may express our humanness. He believed that they appeared to us in dreams, art, ritual, myths and symptoms. Jung suggested that people tend to develop two functions, usually one rational function Jung suggested that people tend to develop two functions, usually one Rational functionand one Irrational function. There are four basic ways, or psychological functions which are thinking, feeling, sensation or intuition; one of these becomes the primary or dominant function and the other the auxiliary function. (See Figure 3) on next page. Jung’s Four Psychological Functions Figure 3 Therefore it is unusual to find thinking and feeling sensation and intuition, develop in the same person. The dominant function is directed toward external reality if the person is an extravert, or toward the inner world if the person in an introvert. The rational functions of thinking and feeling can be conceived as a pair of opposites as can the irrational functions of sensation and intuition. The extraverted thinking sensation type would have an introverted feeling-intuitive shadow and vice-versa. (See Figure 4 below) Thinking Thinking EXTRAVERSION EXTRAVERSION CONSCIOUSNESS CONSCIOUSNESS INTROVERSION INTROVERSION SHADOW SHADOW Feeling Feeling Fig 5. Adapted from Cloniger (2000b) and Engler (1999 These eight psychetypes are useful in giving the therapist a more complete picture of the client’s personality and help to identify the function that the individual uses for dealing with the less preferred direction, known as the auxiliary function. Jung cautioned that types rarely occur in a pure form and that there is a wide range of variation within each type, that people of a specific type may change as their personal collective unconscious changes in response to external or indeed internal influences which will motivate the individual to seek change in their lives. The therapist needs to be aware of that every client responds differently. Jung viewed emotional disturbance as a person’s attempt to reconcile the contradictory aspects of personality. One side of the psyche, such as the conscious, adaptive, social persona, may be exaggerated at the expense of the darker, unconscious aspects, the shadow side :- Example:- The Extraverted sensation types who may appear to be superficial and soulless and actively seek thrills and distractions but have a shadow side of intuition which when activated by an inner event will gives rise to negative hunches that are way off beam and may manifest as paranoid or hostile behaviour for no apparent reason. (Stevens 1994b Critics of Jung A criticism of Jung’s theory was his lack of empirical research in which his theory has been attacked as being â€Å"non-falsifiable and unscientific† (Herenhahn. 994 p.33) Jung based his psychology on explorations of his own inner world, as well as his work with people ranging from â€Å"normal† to those with neurotic problems and even those suffering from psychosis (Snowdon, 2010. P.XXV1). Eysenck was also a critic see section on (Eysenck). However, Jung was unconcerned claiming that he â€Å"cannot experience himself as a scientific problem. Myth is more individual and expresses life more precisely than does science (Stevens. 2001. P.156) How might Jung’s Theory usefully help a client and determine therapeutic goals:- It is necessary to determine whether a person is primarily orientated toward their inner (introversion) or outer world (extraversion) and next to assess which are the dominant and auxillary psychological functions of the client. Jung said that people connect ideas, feelings, experiences and information by way of associations in the unconscious in such a way as to affect their behavior. These groupings he named as Complexes They may be organised around a particular person or object and the therapist may use this knowledge to bring to the forefront of the client’s consciousness a situation which they may be finding difficult to disengage from such as the case that Jung wrote of where a man who knew that he was suffering from an imaginary growth but could not stop himself from believing it. Although in todays world we have such tools as MRI’s and other techniques to help people see that their unconscious worries are unfounded, I still think that counseling and cognitive therapy can/may be appropriate. The therapeutic goal of Jungian therapy is to help the client reconcile unbalanced aspects of their personality which present in a number of differing ways of  Psychological disturbance.:-Examples include: extreme negativity, addictions,  degrees of paranoia, sudden religious conversion, inappropriate attachments to unsuitable partners, hysteria, mania, depression, hypochondria’s or schizoid personality traits ( as Jung himself had as a boy) By understanding his theory and how each type may present the therapist can help them unlock the shadow sides of their personality. It is a process in which the client is helped to come to terms with the place of self within their own world and also to help them see that they are part of a greater collective unconscious. Much of Jung’s work was about the interconnectedness of all people and cultures which in today’s world is a helpful to us. The use of appropriate assessment techniques can be invaluable in helping a therapist to develop the untapped potential within the individual. Jung was of the opinion that treatment along certain prescribed lines according to a certain school of thought does not always work. And finding about the person’s personality type should help a therapist to establish which treatment method should work best for that particular person. For some people it is feeling accepted by others in which case the person centred approach would be most appropriate whereas others are very goal oriented, not so much in touch with their feelings and like to work with targets and see results quickly. For such people the cognitive behaviour approach would be the most appropriate Further Jung believes that the opposite poles attract but at the same time will find themselves in conflict later on in a relationship. By helping the client become aware the therapist will be able to help the client realise what works and does not work in their relationship. People’s values, attitudes or beliefs are not part of a person’s psyche however personality can certainly contribute towards influencing these. Jung was convinced that our personalities never become stati so there is a potential for us to grow throughout our lives and we can never quite say that our growth has finished. Indeed I find myself on this journey of self discovery and am finding the real me as opposed to how others would like to view me. I am unearthing what drives me, what my purpose is and how I want  to get there. These wide possibilities are there also for each client when they come for therapy. The more the counsellor is able to learn about their self and promote growth the better the therapeutic relationship and the more progress the client can make. There might also be a breakthrough for clients who are not very happy in their jobs or for those who are not quite sure about the direction they want to follow in their career choices. Clients might therefore get an idea about the types of jobs that would suit their particular personality and that could signify another turning point in the counselling process. Learning about our personalities can certainly be very enriching but should not be used to make excuses for the behaviour we are not proud of. I myself have taken the Myers Brigg test (which includes an additional further two categories of preference and perceiving – which in turn multiplied by two Jung’s eight personality types to that of sixteen personality types) with a result of INFJ and learned that my first career preference would be a counselor and indeed that is exactly what I am at this moment trying to achieve and hope that I will become a proficient therapist. I found the test to be invaluable and I must stress that the personality type description fits me fully. I am very creative, practical and always on the lookout for new solutions and ideas. I have a strong desire to help people realise their potential. I am very empathetic and show great intuitive abilities. When I was at school other kids always wanted me to describe what a new teacher would be like and I never failed by just looking at her or him once in the corridor. I am aware that I enjoy spending time on my own to renew myself and in order to do that I like to unwind in a really peaceful place. Ever since I was small I never liked conflict and there always seemed a lot of it going around in my family. But I actually am happy to enter it to help resolve it. I certainly enjoy being active and look out for the next challenge. And perhaps some might find me stubborn if I am given advice as I tend to stick to my intuitive feelings. If my clients find out which personality type they are it might help them  make sense of things they did not even understand about themselves – helping them to see how they interact with others and how they view themselves. This essay has been an enlightening journey of discovery of not only Jung’s theory but thins I have discovered about myself on a personal level. I hope that when I eventually become a therapist I can use this skill and my clients can benefit in the same way I have. Conclusion Whilst Jung’s theories are widely used in psychodynamics and personality testing in todays world, it should be recognized that this theory about different types of human personalities is a psychological approach to growth and wholeness. The therapeutic goal of Jungarian therapy is to help the client reconcile unbalanced aspects of their personality which may present in a number of differing ways of psychological disturbances (mentioned above) and physical illness, and obsessions. I therefore feel that understanding Jung’s theory and how each type may present gives me as a therapist the ability to help the client gradually strip away the shadow side of their personality, the negative aspect that they will need to address. This will be a process of individuation in which the client is helped towards the conscious realization and fulfillment of their unique self and to help them see that they are a part of a greater collective unconscious. In conclusion, I agree that understanding personality types, whether it is Jung’s theory or Eysencks is very important in helping me as a therapist, and my client in reaching their goal/s. By my being aware of the strength of my clients psyche it could help me begin to work on weaker areas, therefore helping my client to find meaning within their own world and moving towards their true self. References Boeree G. (2006) Carl Jung 1875 – 1961 http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html Accessed 28/08/10 Cloniger S. C. ( 2000) Theories of personality: understanding Persons(3rd Ed) Engler, B. (1999)Personality theories, an introduction. Eysenck , H.J. (1982) Personality, genetics and behaviour: Selected papers. Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Biological dimensions of personality. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 244-276). Frager, R., & Fadiman, J. (2005). Excerpt from Personality and Personal Growth ( Fordam, F (1953) An introduction to Jung’s psychology.Baltimore. Penguin. In Engler, B. (1999)Personality theories, an introduction Furnam, A (1990) Can people accurately estimate their own personality test scores? European Journal of Personality, 4(4), 319-327 in Engler, B. (1999) Personality theories, an introduction.p87 (5th Ed) Jung C, (1933) Jung ‘Psychological Theory of Types’. Modern Man in Search of a Soul , p. 98 (cf. C.W., 6). http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=852&Itemid=41#Contents2 O’Roark, A.M. (1990). Comment on Cowan’s interpretation of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Jung’s psychological functions.Journal of Personality Assessment , 58, 277-299 in Cloniger S. C. ( 2000) Theories of personality: understanding Persons Stevens, A. (1994a)Jung A Very Short Introduction. p38. Stevens, A. (1994b) Jung A Very Short Introduction. Ruth Snowden. The key ideas 2011 Ruth Snowden – Teach yourself Jung

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Gypsies, the Work Ethic and Hungarian Socialism

In his work Socialism; Ideals, Ideologies and Local Practice, Chris Hann includes the text in which Michael Steward analyses the Gypsy responses to Hungarian social policy providing the image of the sources of popular resistance to the massive experiment in social engineering undertaken by the socialist governments of the Soviet bloc. The text focuses on the twenty five years period in which the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party led a vigorous campaign to assimilate the near half-million Gypsy population into the Magyar working class by trying to eliminate all traces of Gypsy lifestyle and behavior. In the author’s view there was there was an important plank formed in the social policy of the Hungarian regime. This happened due to several reasons: the largest minority in Hungary lived shocking poverty conditions, the state was looking to renew its socialist pledge by modernization under social equality and the economic, social and cultural distinctiveness of the Gypsies. The result of this campaign was not the one intended because Gypsies were in 1985 as prominent in the Hungarian society as they were in 1960. Moreover, the state had managed to create conditions in which, in popular imagination at least, being a Gypsy seemed the most viable way to survive the privations and humiliations of a planned economy. The campaign to assimilate Gypsies in socialist Hungary The campaign lasted from 1961 to 1985 and it began with the decision that Gypsies were neither an ethnic group nor a nation. Cultural factors did not play a significant role in the reproduction of Gypsies and the attempts to turn them into a nation had been misguided. Gypsy nationalists programs slowed down the process of assimilation and their self-organization and expression were to be discouraged. The author states the Gypsies were characterized by a way of life marked out behavioral traits such as scavenging, begging, hustling, dealing and laziness, all being products of their exclusion from the society and the economy of the past. Gypsies had been sustained by the feudal division of labour in which they had played an important role but lost their social importance as capitalist industrialization displayed their skills as redundant. The Hungarian social government thought in the early 1960s that â€Å"the Gypsy problem† could be solved once and for all.